G2B: Ionosphere Variability


Ioanna Tsagouri (National Observatory of Athens, Greece), tsagouri AT noa.gr

Co-Moderator(s): TBD



Anna Belehaki (IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, Greece), belehaki AT noa.gr


  • HF communications, HF geolocation systems
  • N-RTK systems
  • Radio astronomy observations


The Earth's ionosphere is directly affected by the solar variability, by the near-Earth space dynamics and by lower atmosphere phenomena. This, results in a complex and dynamic environment influenced by solar radiation, energy transfer, winds, waves tides, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma processes. The inferred perturbations are considered to be the effects of space weather in the ionospheric plasma.



The overarching objective of this cluster is to work for the improvement of monitoring, modeling and detection capability of ionospheric space weather effects in order to meet users' requirements for nowcasting and forecasting the ionospheric storm effects, the ionospheric bubbles scintillations and the traveling ionospheric disturbances.


Essential Space Environment Quantities (ESEQ] / Forecasting Goals:  

  • The maximum electron density, foF2
  • The height of the maximum electron density, hmF2 
  • The height profile of the electron density, Ne(h)
  • The height profile of the scale height, H(h)
  • The O+/H+ transition height, hT 
  • The total electron content, TEC

Action Topics:

For list of action topics please click "Read more":


Tsagouri, I., Belehaki, A., Themens, D. R., Jakowski, N., Fuller-Rowell, T., Hoque, M. M., ... & Shim, J. S. (2023). Ionosphere variability I: Advances in observational, monitoring and detection capabilities. Advances in Space Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2023.07.024.

Tsagouri, I., Themens, D. R., Belehaki, A., Shim, J. S., Hoque, M. M., Nykiel, G., ... & Miloch, W. J. (2023). Ionosphere Variability II: Advances in theory and modeling. Advances in Space Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2023.07.056.